Migration, as a global phenomenon, has captured the attention of social and economic researchers, encompassing economic and social aspects beyond cultural dimensions. The recent increase in migration worldwide is due to challenges in Afghanistan, bringing forth security issues, economic difficulties, poverty, social inequality, and lack of educational opportunities.
This phenomenon has a significant impact not only on a national scale but also globally. Research indicates that economic, social, and natural factors, including war, poverty, unemployment, and economic instability, are major reasons for migration from Afghanistan. A considerable portion of migrants aims to secure employment and increase income to mitigate economic and social challenges.
Afghan migrants, like others throughout history, view migration as an opportunity to improve living conditions. With advancements in science and technology, migration has become a complex phenomenon involving economic, educational, and social opportunities on a global scale.
Afghan migrants, especially after the fall of the government and the intensification of conflict, face numerous challenges. Despite these challenges, migration is recognized as a crucial factor in the development and transformation of global societies, enhancing international relations and cultural exchange.
Afghanistan, despite its war-torn history and numerous challenges, continues to face various issues. Afghan migrants must cope with these realities to establish a new life full of hope and opportunities in different parts of the world.
The Sun and Shadow of Afghan Migration: Challenges and Opportunities.
Migration from Afghanistan to other countries is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon driven by various international criteria, motivations, and causes. These migrations are shaped by natural characteristics, socio-economic conditions, and the political situation in Afghanistan. After the fall of the government and facing challenges such as human rights abuses, social needs, living conditions, and biological factors, individuals in Afghanistan seek improved living conditions, escape, and migration to other countries.
The expansion of this interconnected chain highlights significant differences between migrants who have moved to destination countries and those who still face many challenges in neighboring Pakistan. Those with better familiarity with the language and culture of the destination country, along with previous experiences, quickly adapt and succeed in the job market. Others, due to economic and security challenges or insufficient familiarity with the destination environment, continue to face numerous challenges in neighboring countries. Due to limitations in economic, educational, and occupational areas, they have been unable to experience an improved life.
As a result, socio-economic differences between these two groups of migrants play a crucial role in their life experiences and success in destination countries. There is a need for more attention and support from host communities, especially in dealing with additional challenges faced by migrants.
“America as a Destination for Migrants: Opportunities and Challenges.”
Migration to America as a popular destination offers numerous life and job opportunities to individuals from around the world. Economically and socially, the country has become one of the most dynamic societies globally, providing access to a variety of facilities and amenities that can enhance individual lives.
One of the primary opportunities in living in America is the prominence of educational facilities. The country hosts many top universities and higher education institutions globally, allowing individuals to pursue higher education and develop their skills and knowledge in various fields.
The American job market, due to its vastness and diverse range of occupations, presents numerous job opportunities. Individuals can experience diverse jobs, ranging from technology and software to various industries and services.
Moreover, the rich and diverse social and cultural life is also a valuable opportunity in America. The people in this country benefit from cultural and racial diversity, enabling them to connect with other ethnicities and cultures in various environments.
Despite these opportunities, challenges such as language issues, cultural adjustment, and immigration regulations exist for migrants. However, with a little effort and commitment, migrants can access better jobs in America. As a dynamic and extensive job market, the country provides ample opportunities for individuals with diverse skills and capabilities.
In conclusion, despite these challenges, the available opportunities in America can facilitate migrants in creating a better life and achieving career success. With a commitment to adaptation, migrants can access better jobs in the dynamic and extensive American job market.
Challenges before immigration:
With the emergence of a dark mask on the face of Afghanistan’s history, the narrative of the people’s lives in this land has turned into a tale of immense pain and sorrow. Over the past two decades, the hope for a better future had come alive in the hearts of the people. A hope that, day by day, was joined by the increasing glory of women and progress towards equality and social rights. However, with the fall of the government, the lives they had built with immense effort turned into a sea of fear and horror, forcing people to leave homes they had constructed due to hardships and misfortune. This compulsion not only makes their daily lives difficult but also erases all the joys of their existence.
Their somber faces reflect the image of deep wounds resulting from years of pressures and instabilities. These faces indicate the weariness of their souls and hearts; hearts that tremble under the most fragile situations. Women who have lost their families, the lands they have traversed, and without any guarantees for the future, are forced to move on.
Individuals who have fled to asylum countries such as Pakistan, Iran, Rwanda, Albania, Abu Dhabi, and other places have faced significant challenges. Their gloomy faces reflect the image of poverty and lack of access to welfare facilities. Those who, at great expense, have purchased their last Pakistan visa and acquired a pricey plane ticket, without migration case planning and approval, have turned to neighboring countries as their destination for refuge.
Challenges of migration flow:
Those migrants who have left Afghanistan and arrived in another country are faced with new difficulties. Additionally, individuals waiting for the approval of their migration cases have encountered problems arising from the complicated conditions in the host country, and their lives are nearing a border of bitterness and despair. The situation of these individuals becomes more complicated day by day, and their life problems increase. The expiration of the visa for conflict migrants who entered Pakistan has cast a shadow of fear and distress over their lives, turning their aspirations and future possibilities into a bitter dream. Lack of access to work and financial resources, as well as the development of migration cases, have turned their financial issues into a challenging and bitter nightmare, making decisions to face migration-related challenges more daunting than ever before.
On the other hand, the disorderly and discriminatory taxation of conflict migrants in Pakistan has turned the lives of Afghan migrants into a pervasive and difficult tumult. The unstable economic and social situation in Pakistan poses a greater challenge for the conflict migrants, but they are still forced to come to Pakistan due to the compulsion of leaving the country. Many of these migrants, enduring unstable and economically insecure conditions, prefer the unequal conditions of Afghanistan over the challenges and crises of Pakistan. Despite the unstable and unsafe economic conditions, they endure unemployment, and the unorganized conditions in Afghanistan seem preferable to facing the challenges and crises of Pakistan, seeking an escape from the turbulent life in Afghanistan.
Many people who have sought refuge in Pakistan face severe additional challenges due to the economic and social instability. The taxation of conflict migrants, as an unwanted burden, has increased day by day, adding new costs to their lives.
The lives of these migrants have turned into an inextricable state of fear, despair, and stress. Many believe that life in this land, whether as a legal or illegal migrant, is worse than prison. They live within numerous constraints and lack basic living facilities. The disorder and taxation are only part of their problems, and dark images of their lives have been portrayed, scattered in the streets, telling a story of humanity against another day-to-day hardship.
In the shadow of these bitter realities, Afghan migrants are increasingly facing the worst days of their lives. Enduring unstable conditions and the lack of basic rights guarantees, their lives have become a serious threat and an unsafe environment. In the darkness of legal and human rights, they navigate in a world beyond the usual understanding of humanity, facing numerous challenges. As representatives of social inequality, their health situation has reached an unimaginable stage of disorder and harm. These individuals, due to lack of access to health services and violation of their basic rights, face increasing physical and mental problems, sinking into a state of deep depression. This depression is not only the result of unsafe physical and health conditions but also stems from the lack of basic life facilities and uncertainty about the future.
In terms of enduring this pressure, these migrants are not only faced with physical challenges but also mental problems resulting from life instability and the loss of basic facilities. Their lives have approached a border of bitterness and depression.
Challenges After Arrival in the Destination Country:
Initiating life in America for these migrants comes with economic challenges and difficulties that profoundly affect their spirits and aspirations. The lack of financial resources to cover rent, daily expenses, and health services has turned their lives into a bitter tale. Language problems also make it more difficult for them to access job opportunities and integrate into society.
Every day, they face increasing life challenges and strive to continue despite the stresses and emotional pressures accompanying them. Even when educational or job opportunities are available, the unfavorable living conditions and economic constraints reduce their ability to fully enjoy their lives.
Their economy, after entering America, is highly vulnerable, and migrants are trying to stabilize their financial situations, searching for job opportunities and solutions to cover daily expenses. Even the minority with higher education and proficiency in English cannot escape economic problems and gradually encounter various financial obstacles.
Amidst all these challenges, they continuously endeavor to bear the heavy burden of economic and social problems to build a generation better than what they have experienced in their homeland. This journey, filled with despair, is riddled with various challenges such as uncertainty about the future, language limitations, and efforts to pass on culture and identity to future generations.
The situation of a significant portion of these individuals in America is worse job-wise than it was in Afghanistan. Housing resettlement organizations can only provide assistance in house rent for a limited period of three months. Many new immigrants are facing language challenges, and another part of these people who entered with parole visas, after a long period, receives work permits and ultimately many conflict migrants have integrated into society with great difficulty. When Afghan migrants arrive in America, housing resettlement organizations provide only initial services for three months, and the U.S. government provides cash assistance and health services for six months.
Afghan migrants seeking a better life in America face challenges and restrictions in employment sectors. Some of these individuals work as taxi drivers in cities. This job, in addition to financial constraints, requires physical labor and long working hours, providing minimal income.
Only a small fraction with higher education and excellent English proficiency have managed to get slightly better jobs. Still, alongside that, they often need to work taxi jobs part-time to cover their living expenses. Another challenge is not having a car, or a small portion of migrants who receive help and support from their families get a car. They work in food distribution jobs, including working with Amazon, and, after a year of having their driver’s licenses, they can become taxi drivers. However, this job does not yield significant income, and a person may start working from early morning until midnight, possibly earning a few hundred dollars during the weekends. After deducting car expenses and market costs, the income from this taxi job is not substantial.
In general, despite the extensive efforts of some of these individuals to better integrate into American society, economic and social problems continue to sit as a dark veil over their lives. This story is a tale of a bitter contradiction and aspirations for a better life within the darkness of the social realities of Afghan immigrants in America.